вторник, 12 март 2013 г.

Aztech Figurines


Aztecs ancient civilization (14-16 centuries), which is inhabited areas of Mexico. Their population was over 1.5 million people. Aztec civilization has a rich mythology and cultural heritage. The capital of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan, and was located on Lake Tekskoko where now is Mexico City.

The name Aztecs comes from the Aztec Atstlan - their mythical homeland, located north of the Mexican valley (probably in the western part of Mexico), where he later migrated to the Aztecs in Central America. The Aztecs called themselves often meshika (Mexicali) - on behalf of the largest and most powerful tribe in the Indian community in the region and from that comes the name of Mexico. It is customary to call the Aztecs as the founders of the Aztec empire, and all other ethnic groups who speak Nahuatl (the Aztec language) and living in the Valley of Mexico to the conquest by the Spaniards.

The Aztec empire was strongest in Central America, known for its riches and traditions. In less than a century the Aztecs established their authority over a vast territory extending north to the central part of Mexico to the east - to the Gulf of Mexico to the south - to the present Guatemala and west to the Pacific coast. Capital, Tenochtitlan, on which there is today the capital of Mexico (Mexico City) was one of the biggest cities in the world at that time. Aztec culture is complex and their language, legends and traditions to this day have a big impact on the life and culture of Mexico.

Since agriculture is the main livelihood for the Aztecs, they were totally dependent on natural forces, so they are worshiped as gods. Foremost among the gods was Huitzilopochtli (god of the sun), also revered as the god of war. Other important gods Tlalok (rain god) and Quetzalcoatl ("Feathered Serpent") - the god of wind and wisdom, and also associated with resurrection.

In Aztec religion has good and evil gods. The Aztecs believed that good gods have always maintained strong to prevent the evil gods to conquer the world. For this purpose, perform human sacrifices. For most victims were often used prisoners of the war and the most important rituals is sometimes chosen for volunteers Aztec warriors. The Aztecs believed that God Tlalok prefers children, offered in sacrifice.

Sacrifice among the Aztecs represented complex rituals performed according to the movement of the stars of appeasement to the gods at a time. The most common ritual taken place in the following order: The victim climbed the stairs to the top of the pyramid, where the temple. There the priest puts her to bed, and the stone altar and brings a heart. Then he rose high to worship God and throws it into the sacred fire while it is still beating. Aztecs frequently conducted mass massacres. According to legend, in 1487 in Tenochtitlan priests sacrificed more than 80,000 prisoners in honor of the renovated temple of the sun god.


Shiva and Parvati


Metal panel depicting Indian gods Shiva and Parvati.

Shiva is one of the three supreme gods in Hindu mythology. He is "Mahaguru" (Great teacher, teacher of teachers), called a god of the Moon в the Kailas mountain. Shiva is worshiped not only as a god-destroyer, but as a creator.

Parvati is a Hindu goddess. She was the second wife of Shiva and mother of the god and goddess Ganesha and Skanda. Parvati is known as Gauri. She is also regarded as a daughter of Himavan. Parvati, when depicted alongside Shiva, generally appears with two arms, but when she is alone, she is depicted having four or eight arms, and astride a tiger or lion. Generally considered a benevolent goddess.

Japan Costumes and Masks


Masks and costumes from Japan. Japanese since ancient times able to determine the expression of the face and even the fate of man. In this context arises the wish to conceal their faces, so that the Japanese generally seem comfortable with cheerful person, regardless of inner feelings and emotions. Japanese behave very carefully in the society. The Japanese do not encourage the expression of feelings. They tend to have a variety of masks. Every Japanese person since childhood has at least one favorite mask, which makes it unrecognizable. The viewer sees the masks, depending on the situation or actor poses many shades of emotions of the characters.

Adopting a human begins with an assessment of the person. The faces of the people knows ethnicity, gender, age, and their mood.

Japanese masks


Japanese masks and costumes.  These masks consist Japanese female demon HANNYA. The Hannya mask is used in many noh and Japanese plays, as well as in Shinto ritual kagura dances. The Hannya mask portrays the souls of women who have become demons due to obsession or jealousy. the two of the most famous of the Noh repertoire, and its distinctive and frightening appearance make it one of the most recognizable Noh masks.

The Hannya mask is said to be demonic and dangerous but also sorrowful and tormented, displaying the complexity of human emotions. When the actor looks straight ahead, the mask appears frightening and angry; when tilted slightly down, the face of the demon appears to be sorrowful, as though crying.The oldest hannya mask is dated 1558.

Hannya masks appear in various skin tones: a white mask indicates a woman of aristocratic status, a red mask depicts a low-class woman, and the darkest red depicts true demons (revealed after appearing as women, as in Momijigari and Kurozuka.

Confucious


Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history (551–479 BCE). The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism.

As a youth, he worked as an administrator in a small Lu and rose to the post of Minister of Justice, when age fifty three. After two years of service in the post, Confucius left because he disagreed with the policy of the prince of Lu.

In Thoughts of Confucius, Lu was prosperous because of the wise management of Confucius, but this is hardly true, as he has held senior positions in either Lou or elsewhere. According to legend, in the neighboring state Qi  was worried that Lu is very strong and decided to sabotage the development of Lou as a great send 100 horses and 80 beautiful dancers ruler of Lu. He even devoted his merriment and pleasure, which lasted three days, during which the ruler never looked civil and religious affairs. As a sign of disapproval of the conduct of his master, Confucius left Lu.

Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children (and in traditional interpretations) of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", an early version of the Golden Rule.

Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.

Statuette of Buddha


Siddhartha Gautama Buddha was an Indian spiritual teacher, laid the foundation of Buddhism. The word "Buddha" means "Awakened", "Enlightened." Buddha discovered the middle path, which eased final asceticism that existed in Schramm.

Most historians in the early 20th century, accept that he lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE, but more recent studies place the date of his death between 486 and 483 BC and even between 411 and 400 BC According to tradition Gautama was born in the small country Nepal Kapilavastu in today and for most of his life spreading their doctrine in the eastern regions of India such as Magadha and the basket.

Siddhartha Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and Buddhists believe that the stories about his life, teachings and rules of behavior are summarized and memorized by his followers after his death. Various collections attributed to Gautama were passed orally from generation to generation, as recorded for the first time almost four centuries after his death.

Siddhartha Gautama is considered a god or prophet in other religious denominations, including Hinduism, Islamic branch Ahmadis and the Bahai faith.

Maitreya - The God of Wealth and Abundance


The God of Wealth and Abundance - Maitreya (also known as Laughing Buddha). Good luck in business, helping you achieve goals simultaneously drawn.The Legend says that if you caress your belly deity 100 times, thinking about something good, your wishes will be fulfilled. Everywhere the monk appeares in people's lives comes happiness, abundance and prosperity.

Laughing Buddha, known as Hotey in Japan and Maitreya in Buddhism, was the symbol of happiness in Feng Shui. Its role is to remove problems, anxiety, stress, anger, tension and sadness. It also bears unearthly treasures, success and good health in the house and office. Its presence generates good chi that brings harmony and grace. Nowadays laughing Buddha is stable so popular that you can see it everywhere in the living room, hotels, churches and leading companies in Asia. When displayed, hotels usually carries a large gold Chinese bullion, gold vessels, back bag filled with gifts and resources. Can occur with virtually any items containing certain symbolism. His face is oval with a big smile, a symbol of happiness and fulfillment. His image is to drive its owner is always smiling.